Status Quo Agreement
- Israel's religious structure stems partly from a compromise to obviate clashes that took the form of a so-called status quo agreement worked out by David Ben-Gurion with Orthodox and religious leaders and religious political parties on the eve of Israel's independence. The agreement proposed to retain the situation as it had existed upon independence: individuals would be free to pursue their religious practices in private as they saw fit, while in the public domain, there would be no changes in the prevailing situation. This arrangement thus continued the Ottoman Empire's millet system, which allowed each religious community to control its own affairs. This allowed preservation of a large system of religious (especially rabbinical) courts and other government-supported religious institutions. The status quo agreement allowed the Orthodox community to maintain and expand its efforts to assert control over various activities, periodically engendering public conflict and discussion.A particularly controversial dimension of the status quo agreement was the granting of deferments from service in the Israel Defense Forces for men studying in ultra-Orthodox rabbinical institutions. In December 1998, the Supreme Court of Israel ruled that the status quo agreement initially negotiated between Ben-Gurion and the ultra-Orthodox political parties to grant exemptions from military service to yeshiva students was unconstitutional; the court gave the Knesset one year in which to formulate new legislation effecting such deferrals. During the 14th Knesset (1996-99), Israel Labor Party leader Ehud Barak sought to introduce legislation in the Knesset that would effectively end most exemptions from military duty on religious grounds. This determination to change the status quo agreement was reiterated by Barak both prior to and since his election as prime minister in May 1999. The question of how to achieve this change was a key component of Barak's coalition negotiations with both Sephardi Torah Guardians (SHAS) and the United Torah Judaism (UTJ) parties in June-July of 1999. Shinui Party leader Yosef (Tommy) Lapid made the participation of ultra-Orthodox men and the status quo agreement an issue during the negotiations leading up to the formation of the various governing coalitions established by Ariel Sharon since his election as prime minister in 2001. However, while Lapid's strategy worked in 2001—in the sense that he was able to veto the participation of any ultra-Orthodox party in the coalition—in 2005, this hard-line strategy backfired, leaving Lapid and Shinui on the outside of a reconfigured Sharon-led coalition that included the ultra-Orthodox UTJ Party.In mid-December 2005, in the context of the campaign leading up to the election to the 17th Knesset, legislation was adopted to introduce a form of "national service" for those segments of Israeli society, including Orthodox rabbinical students, who were unable or unwilling to serve in military units on religious or ethical grounds. It remained to be seen what impact this legislation would have on the status quo agreement. On 11 May 2006, the supreme court determined that the legislation (known as the "Tal Law") providing for most exemptions from military service for haredi rabbinical students is in contradiction with the human dignity of those who serve in the Israeli army. However, the court determined that the law should be left untouched for an additional 1/2 years in order to examine if its application would improve. On 18 July 2007, the Knesset decided on an extension of the Tal Law for another five years until 2012. This effectively left in abeyance efforts to breach the societal chasm caused by the status quo agreement.
Historical Dictionary of Israel. Bernard Reich David H. Goldberg. Edited by Jon Woronoff..
Look at other dictionaries:
Status quo — is a Latin term meaning the present existing state of affairs, or the state in which . To maintain the status quo is to keep the things the way they currently are. The related phrase status quo ante , means the state of things as it was before.… … Wikipedia
Political status of Taiwan — The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan (or Taiwan Issue as referred to by the Communist Party of China) hinges on whether Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu should remain effectively independent as territory of the Republic of… … Wikipedia
Rambouillet Agreement — The Rambouillet Agreement is the name of a proposed peace agreement between then Yugoslavia and a delegation representing the ethnic Albanian majority population of Kosovo. It was drafted by NATO and named for Chateau Rambouillet, where it was… … Wikipedia
German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement — German Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement Signed January 10, 1941 Location Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union Signatories Soviet Union … Wikipedia
standstill agreement — stand·still agreement / stand ˌstil / n: an agreement providing for the preservation of the status quo for a specified or indefinite period: as a: an agreement under which litigation is forestalled between two parties b: an agreement under which… … Law dictionary
Root-Takahira Agreement — The nihongo|Root Takahira Agreement|高平・ルート協定|Takahira Rūto Kyōtei was an agreement between the United States of America and the Empire of Japan negotiated between U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese ambassador Takahira Kogoro. Signed… … Wikipedia
Root-Takahira Agreement — ▪ United States Japan  (Nov. 30, 1908), accord between the United States and Japan that averted a drift toward possible war by mutually acknowledging certain international policies and spheres of influence in the Pacific. The inflammatory … Universalium
standstill agreement — noun An agreement between parties to respect the status quo, esp granting more time for repayment of a debt • • • Main Entry: ↑stand … Useful english dictionary
Offset agreement — Defense offset agreements are legal trade practices in the aerospace and military industries. These commercial practices do not need state regulations but, since the purchasers are mostly military departments of sovereign nations comparable to… … Wikipedia
Marriage in Israel — Marriages in Israel can only be performed under the auspices of the religious community to which couples belong. Matrimonial law is based on the Millet or confessional community system employed in the Ottoman Empire, which was not modified during … Wikipedia